Alouatta caraya are found in eastern Bolivia, southern Brazil and Paraguay and northern Argentina.
This species preferred habitats are rainforest and mixed deciduous forest.
- Black and gold howler monkeys are about two feet (cm) long with a 30-inch (cm) tail.
- Males weigh 11-18 pounds (5.0-8.3 kg); females weigh eight to 12 pounds (3.8-5.4 kg).
- Males are covered with black fur; females have gold fur with a black face.
- Howler monkeys have prehensile tails with bare skin on the underside.
- Howler monkeys have large necks and lower jaws and super-sized vocal cords.
- Like all howlers, their hyoid and larynx housing the vocal apparatus are enlarged.
What Does It Eat?
In the wild: Mostly leaf-eaters (folivorous), but they supplement their diet with fruit, flowers and seeds.
At the zoo: Fruits, vegetables and monkey chow.
What Eats It?
The black howler monkey is preyed on by harpy eagles and jaguars.
Black howler monkeys are social animals that live in groups of five to 19 individuals consisting of one to three adult males, two to four adult females and their offspring. There may also be bachelor groups. Alloparenting is practiced where other females of the group carry, groom, and protect infants other than their own. Alloparenting is sometimes practiced by the males of the group as well.
Females mature at three to four years and males at about five years. Howler monkeys breed throughout the year in a polygynandrous system (both males and females breed with multiple mates). After a gestation of 180-194 days the female gives birth to a single offspring (twins are rare) weighing about three and a half pounds (113 g). The baby clings to mom’s belly for the first month then switches to her back. Young howler monkeys nurse for about a year and stay with their natal group until they reach adulthood. Average lifespan in the wild is 16-20 years and they live 23-28 years in captivity.